Would you like to master the dry granulation process? This is the BEST guide for you if the answer is yes. Reason: I’ll walk you through a detailed analysis of several important components of dry granulation processes. From the concept, fundamental ideas, benefits, drawbacks, tools, and real-world applications to, to name a few, factors influencing the dry granulation process.
Chapter – 1 Definition of Dry Granulation
Dry Granulation Powder -The Complete Manual By the Time you Finish Reading This Manual the Idea of Dry Granulation and Comprehensive Guideselect Right Machine. With this information, processing of dry granulation materials can be simply optimised. Let’s get going:
Srinivasan Shanmugam describes dry granulation as a procedure that involves mechanical compression or compaction to agglomerate dry powder particles in a research that was published on the National Center for Biotechnology Information. But what precisely is agglomeration?
Agglomeration, according to the Collins Dictionary, is the process through which particles come together to form loosely bound groupings. This suggests that the procedure includes exerting some force to get the powder particles to stick together. No binding agent is required. Consider these:
How is this even feasible, I’m sure you’re wondering… It will be covered in chapter 3 very soon. Wet granulation or dry granulation that has been treated to create granules are typically used in the pharmaceutical or food processing sectors. To make powders bigger and denser, in other words. You can use dry granulation or wet granulation depending on the needs of the material processing. The ultimate result is typically nearly identical, but the method is very different.
A final comparison of dry granulation vs moist granulation can be found in chapter 6. I’m convinced that you can now confidently respond to the question, “What is dry granulation?” with an appropriate response. In light of that, allow me to go one step further:
Chapter – 2 Why Dry Granulation (Learn When do Choose Dry Granulation Process)
It is abundantly obvious in Chapter 1 that the dry granulation process does not need:
- Utilizing liquid or moisture to bind powder particles
- Dry wet grains using heat
Dry granulation has not been widely used in several material processing sectors since the 1940s. However, as scientists pay more attention to active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs), the dry granulation process has emerged as the ideal remedy.
The truth is that you cannot process some APIs using wet granulation without endangering their quality. For dry granulation, a roller compactor is unquestionably required. You can use a roller compactor for dry granulation. Don’t worry, I’ll talk about this gear in chapter 9. Currently, when should you select dry granulation: What can be done using dry granulation?
Moisture Sensitive APIs/Materials/Substances
These are typically chemicals that change when exposed to moisture. This moisture could come from any granulation solution, including water (for the case of wet granulation). In such cases, the excipient or API may lose crucial chemical qualities, rendering it useless. Wet granulation cannot be used to create granules in such circumstances. The ideal substitute will be dry granulation. An illustration of how some excipients respond to moisture or water is provided below:
To understand more about how moisture and water affect pharmaceutical excipients, click this link. Keep in mind that you don’t need water or any other binding solution for the dry granulation process.
Temperature Sensitive APIs/Materials/Substances
Well, the next step is to dry the API or excipient after using water or any other binding solution. What if they are sensitive to temperature? The ideal answer might not be wet granulation.
Therefore, the only practical option for temperature-sensitive APIs and excipients is dry granulation. If you’re interested in learning more, you might read: Drug Degradation Pathway. Since it is outside the scope of this article, I won’t discuss it further today. The major lesson here is When processing moisture- and temperature-sensitive goods, API, excipients, or materials, you should use the dry granulation approach. In relation to dry granulation, allow me to walk you through the procedure’s steps.
Chapter – 3: Basic Principle of Dry Granulation – A simple Understanding of Dry Granulation Method Steps
It is not sufficient to understand what dry granulation is and when to use it. You must comprehend the stages involved in the dry granulation method. I refer to the procedure’s execution. Typically, the dry granulation process only has two methods for creating granules. The two procedures consist of: Process of slugging during dry granulation Dry granulation via roller compaction what, then, is the primary distinction between these two dry granulation principles? Let’s investigate:
Slugging Process in Dry Granulation
One of the earliest methods used in the dry granulation process is the slugging method. In reality, it was a common procedure in the majority of pharmaceutical businesses as early as the 1950s. However, most businesses today employ the roller compaction dry granulation approach because of the numerous drawbacks. The following essential procedures are essentially involved in the slugging of granules:
Fill a sizable compression machine with the powder.
Create huge slugs or tablets out of the powder, with a diameter of 0.25 or 1 inches. Essentially, tablet compression is a slugging process.
Break down the huge slug or pill into appropriate sizes using a sizing machine. The tablet will be milled here.
Use a sizing machine to breakdown the large slug or tablet into suitable sizes. Here, you’ll be milling the tablet.
As you can see, the procedure is easy to understand. Slugging in dry granulation is still used by some pharmaceutical companies, despite the fact that it is an outdated procedure. You will discover how the dry slugging machine operates later in chapter 8. Under typical conditions, the following are important variables that affect slugging efficiency in dry granulation:
- Particle size, flow characteristics, powder cohesiveness, and density are examples of material properties.
- Slugging pressure, feed hopper capacity, compression speed, feed frame, tool design, and die diameter are just a few examples of machine design elements.
Granule slugging typically calls for 4 to 6 tonnes of hydraulic pressure and 10 to 30 revolutions per minute for the turret. So why are so many businesses giving up on slugging of granules?
Disadvantages of slugging in Dry Granulation
I do not endorse the slugging method in dry granulation for the following basic reasons:
- Poor process control; the granules’ size and density are almost impossible to regulate, leading to numerous variances.
- Low capacity for production; slugging of granules is a sluggish process that would not be able to satisfy the high production demands in the contemporary chemical, pharmaceutical, or food processing industries.
- High maintenance and part replacement costs are a result of frequent part wear.
- Pool economies of scale; when output rises, costs associated with machine upkeep, energy use, production time, etc. rise as well. Therefore, it is inappropriate in current production environments.
- High air pollution; the majority of dry granulation slugging machines may pollute the air due to both noise and dust.
- Demands a lot of room, especially for dry granulation because of the massive equipment involved.
Obviously, I cannot suggest this approach for any dry granulation procedure. Experience has shown that the typical dry granulation procedure is not at all cost-effective. Which dry granulation method should you choose then?
Roller Compaction Dry Granulation
A common method of dry granulation is roller compaction. In the majority of material processing systems, it has so far taken the place of the slugging granulation process. Here, a very different dry granulation process ensures high efficiency. A roller compaction machine is required for the operation of this procedure. Later in chapter 9, you will learn more about this device. The precise operation of roller compaction technology is as follows:
Fill the feeding hopper with all the material. Material will be transported to the rolling system with the aid of the machine feeding auger.
The rolling system will compress the material into a ribbon once it has arrived. The material will be fed into the space between the two rollers by the machine, so keep that in mind. In essence, the two rollers increase material density, resulting in the formation of a ribbon.
The machine will now shape and size the ribbon or briquettes to the specifications needed. Only granules of the proper size can pass through a sieve in this area of the machine. The machine also cycles powder, which is made up of incredibly small particles, back through steps 1 and 2 at the same time. As you can see, the procedure is easy to understand. The reality is the use of roller compactor technology is widespread in the material processing industry. Essentially, it is a sophisticated and contemporary dry granulation technique.
Advantages of Roller Compaction Technology
Some of the key benefits of roller compaction in the dry granulation process are listed below:
- The dry granulation process is made simpler; unlike slugging, roller compaction is straightforward and removes the challenge of material processing.
- Roller compactors are more affordable to operate since they use less material and energy.
- As a fully automated system, it uses less energy and labour to run.
- It is a precise method of dry granulation that aids in managing the weight and density of the granules. Granule density production is therefore made simpler and more accurate.
- Capsules and tablets made of granulates produced by roller compactors are quickly disintegrated.
- No solvent or aqueous granulation procedure is required.
- It enables continuous material granulation.
- ideal machinery for processing materials that are hygroscopic
- cuts down on process cycle time
- guarantees a quicker processing time for the material
- enhances the flow of powder
Roller compactor machines maximise production while using less space for dry granulation processes.
Clearly, roller compaction technique has a wide range of advantages. Because of this, I can suggest it with certainty in any dry granulation procedure. I’ll walk you through a thorough investigation of the roller compactor machine later in chapter 9. Observe, please! Roller compactors for dry granulation are not perfect, I admit that. That is not the case, though. Its drawbacks include the following:
- Possible reduction in tensile strength; occasionally, when making tablets with grains from roller compaction machines, they have a lower tensile strength. Therefore, you must choose the right excipients to increase the tensile strength.
- Because of the non-compacted powder and the substantial amount of fine powder that remains, there is a chance of lower product yield. To avoid this, the roller compactor machine’s design should allow the fine powder to be reintroduced into the system for compression.
To put it simply, it is simple to adjust the roller compactor machine to ensure effectiveness. You can only do this if you are familiar with the roller compactor machine’s design and operation. That information is covered later in this guide. In the interim, let’s go over the benefits and drawbacks of the dry granulation procedure.
Chapter – 4: Advantages and Disadvantages of Dry Granulation
Dry granulation offers pros and cons, just like other methods of material processing. This information makes it simple to decide when to use dry granulation or other material processing procedures. Let’s quickly review the benefits and drawbacks of dry granulation:
Advantages of Dry Granulation Process
The following are some of the key justifications for thinking about dry granulation:
Dry Granulation Requires Less Space
Space is a problem in every arrangement for processing materials. However, the machine’s design makes it less space-consuming when it comes to dry granulation. Consider the Adinath International Roll Compactor as an illustration; it takes up less room.
Because of this, roll compactor machines are the ideal choice for material processing tasks that call for minimal floor area. Keep in mind that the size of the machine and the installation’s floor space will depend on the production capacity. Wet granulation machines, however, need more floor space when compared to dry granulation machines with the same production capacity.
Suitable for Both Hard Continuous and Batch Granulation Process
Both batch and continuous granulation processes can be done using the dry granulation technology. As a result, both small- and large-scale material processing can benefit greatly from it. This is essentially the level of manufacturing process flexibility you could ask for. Keep in mind that the dry granulator roller compactor has a completely automatic mechanism. Through the control panel, you can manage and keep an eye on every operation.
Guarantees Quality Granules
The capacity to create high-quality granules at the end of the procedure is one thing you’re undoubtedly looking for. Having stated that, it is important to note that the dry granulation process guarantees:
- Granules have a high mechanical strength.
- Granules with a uniform size and shape
- A predictable output
These make it simple to improve following processes like tablet compression or capsule filling. This is so that you are aware of what to anticipate from your granules.
Offers Cost Saving Granulation Process
Using a material processing approach that lowers manufacturing costs is a good strategy to increase your earnings. Well, using a dry granulation procedure while processing some materials can help you save a lot of money. Here are a few examples that will help you: First off, the dry granulation technique eliminates the need for moisture or binding agents. Second, drying granules won’t be required because you won’t need binding solution (use of heat). You will undoubtedly save money and time on the granulation process.
You’ll find that dry granulation almost always results in minimal operating costs. Additionally, it is a successful method of granule formation. Another method to cut costs is by using equipment for dry granulation that takes up less area.
Improving Tablet Disintegration
When used to form tablets, granules from a roll compactor machine enhance the final product’s ability to disintegrate. Since there is no need for water during the granule-forming process, these tablets often have a high capacity to absorb water.
A Perfect Alternative for Producing Effervescent Tablets
The propensity of effervescent pills to dissolve in water and release carbon dioxide is well recognised. You can depend on the dry granulation technique to create some dosages of this type. These are, in essence, the fundamental benefits of the dry granulation process. However, there are several circumstances where this method may not be the best choice. This is as a result of the drawbacks the machine has.
Disadvantages of Dry Granulation Process
Before selecting this manufacturing process, you should be aware of the following important factors:
A Poorly Designed Machine Produces More Dust
Here, there are two possibilities:
- Since the machine creates granulation without adding binder solution or granulation solution, the likelihood of air pollution is considerable.
- There is a significant chance of cross contamination when dealing with dust.
You must select a machine that closely complies with CGMP design criteria if you want to address some of these issues.
Dry Granulation may Require More Power
Businesses that use the slugging process need powerful, heavy-duty equipment. As a result, the cost of production may increase.
High Chances of Static Charges Build Up
Charge buildup in the particles during the dry granulation process is possible. There are several advantages and disadvantages that are specific to a particular dry granulation technique, as you had seen before in chapter 3. However, the most crucial step is picking the right machine for the job. All of stuff is contained in chapters 8 and 9. Reading on. For the time being, let’s discuss yet another important factor that you must take into account whenever dry granulation for material processing is a possibility.
Chapter – 5 Factors Affecting Efficiency of Dry Granulation Process
You will learn about the numerous variables that could impact the effectiveness of the dry granulation process in this section. I have no doubt that you can optimize the dry granulation process with this knowledge. The following are important details to be aware of:
Design of the Granulation Machine
Well, chapters 8 and 9 will teach you more about this. However, it is significant to remember that a dry granulation machine’s design would be crucial in this situation. Consider the roller compactor granulation machine and the slugging dry granulation machine. Because of the latter’s high efficiency, roller compactor machines are preferred by the majority of pharmaceutical companies.
The following design elements will have an impact on how effectively the dry granulation process works:
- The rotating rollers’ design
- Positioning of the roller system; it can be done either vertically or horizontally
- Feeding system
- milling apparatus
- feeding apparatus
- regulating mechanism
In essence, the dry granulation process will be impacted by their distinctive designs. Therefore, it is crucial to understand the key characteristics and construction details of the roller compactor machine. This will make it simple for you to select the machine that best meets your individual material processing requirements.
The conclusion After conducting extensive study and component analysis, select a roll compactor machine. However, understanding the device alone is insufficient. Exactly what are you hoping to granulate?
Physical and Chemical Properties of Material
I did state earlier in this tutorial that the dry granulation technique is appropriate for materials that are sensitive to heat and moisture. Of course, this is because there is no need for granulation solution, which means that the finished product doesn’t need to be dried. In actuality, the physical and chemical properties of various compounds or excipients vary. Therefore, it would be impossible to discuss every piece of information within the scope of this book.
The conclusion Conduct thorough investigation to determine whether using the dry granulation procedure will result in granules that are more compressible and flowable.
Keep in mind that you will be paying attention to a variety of granular characteristics during the dry granulation process, including:
- particles’ size
- Volume density
- Area of contact
- qualities of flow
- Strength and brittleness
The physical and chemical characteristics of the substance you wish to granulate will affect all of these in different ways. The kind of machine used also matters greatly in this situation. But hold on a second You also need to take into account another factor; selecting the right machine and material are not sufficient.
Process Parameters in Dry Granulation
Dry granulation process parameters are the variables that could affect the end product’s quality. The following factors, for instance, are crucial in defining the roller compactor granulation process:
- The feeding screw’s speed
- Powder compacting force
- The rollers are under hydraulic pressure.
- Speed of rotation of the rolls
In chapter 9, I will go into further detail on these criteria. Reading on. Other factors will include the environment’s relative humidity and varied temperature variations. The conclusion the following basic elements govern how effectively the dry granulation process works:
- The granulation process is mostly determined by the machine type.
- Powder’s physical and chemical characteristics
- Dry granulation process characteristics and variables
With that in mind, let me to move on and give you a quick comparison of wet and dry granulation methods.
Chapter – 6 Dry Granulation vs. Wet Granulation Processes (An Ultimate Comparison)
Now that you know everything there is to know, let’s compare the dry and wet granulation processes side by side. You are more likely to select a suitable method for your material processing needs by doing such a comparison. What you need know about wet and dry granulation is as follows:
In wet granulation technology, granules must be formed using a solution (granulating or binding solution). So, we call this procedure “wet” to describe it. In essence, spraying a solution on a material will cause it to become wet at some point.
The technique of generating granules without the addition of any liquid or solution is known as dry granulation. For this reason, we call this procedure “dry” granulation.
ii. Types of Machines in the Granulation Technologies and Techniques
It is obvious that the method used to create granules—how dry granulation differs from wet granulation—is the major difference between the two. It is clear that the two procedures are entirely distinct from point I above. You can anticipate that the machines used in the two granulation processes will have distinct designs as a result.
Such is the design of the wet granulation machine is somewhat intricate and includes numerous features and functionality. It includes, among other things, a system for powder mixing, spraying, drying, and eventually grinding. Here is a clip showing a fluid bed granulator and coater in action.
Among other parts, a dry granulation machine has a roller system, milling system, and sieve system. Video of a roller compactor is provided here.
You can observe that the dry granulation machine’s design is very different from its wet counterpart.
iii. Applications of Dry Granulation vs. Wet Granulation Process
Wet and dry granulation will be used, as was previously indicated, to create granules. Granules can be packaged as the finished product or further processed using a tablet press or capsule filling equipment. However, I encourage you to pay attention to the following points when comparing granulation technologies: use dry granulation process materials or heat- and moisture-sensitive materials. The main objective of a dry granulation machine is this.
This was covered in chapter 2 of this manual. On the other hand, if the product is not susceptible to heat or moisture, you can employ wet granulation. Additionally, you can use this method when you don’t want to harm the powders’ active constituents. Whatever choice you choose, you need to have powder grains at the end of it all.
These are the primary distinctions between the wet and dry granulation procedures, to put it briefly. Always keep in mind that it solely depends on the method, machine design, and kind of material. With that, allow me to introduce you to a crucial section of this tutorial: the use of dry granulation machines in actual applications.
Chapter – 7: Practical Applications of Dry Granulation Technique in Industries
I know you’ve been thinking about this straightforward query from chapter 1: Where can I apply the dry granulation technique specifically? Here are a few factors that the majority of material companies take into account when adopting the dry granulation process, even before I go into it.
i. Helps to Improve Flowability of Material
This is a crucial step in the compression of tablets and the filling of capsules by high-speed equipment. You should be able to regulate the crucial factors that affect the flowability of powder for the best capsule filling procedure, such as:
- Moisture content: a powder’s capacity to flow will be affected by a moisture content rise from 1% to 1.5%.
- Temperature; a small change in temperature will have an impact on the powder’s ability to flow
Particle size; it can be difficult to handle very fine powder, especially during the compression and filling processes for tablets and capsules. a justification for dealing with granules.
- You can improve the bulk density of powder by using the dry granulation method. The particle size will also be increased at the same time.
- Long-term material flowability improvement will make it simpler to compress (for tablet presses) or fill capsules.
ii. Reduces Segregation in Material Processing Industries
It is crucial that different APIs and excipients be homogeneous. This is due to the fact that it will undoubtedly increase the consistency of each tablet or capsule dose in the case of medications. You therefore require a procedure that may bind the particles together, preventing potential particle segregation. Dry granulation will ensure an effective compaction process even when working with goods that are susceptible to heat or moisture.
Your granules will therefore stay whole and there won’t be any chance of segregation. The production of tablets and other pharmaceutical dosage products can therefore be done using it.
Look, these are important factors to take into account when selecting particular applications for dry granulation processes. With that in mind, allow me to give you a quick rundown of the numerous industrial applications of dry granulation processes. For the sake of this piece, I’ll concentrate on the major sectors that gain from dry granulation methods. They consist of:
Dry Granulation in Pharmaceutical Industries
You may recall that I already addressed two important topics in this chapter: preventing product segregation and improving flowability. The reality is Pharmaceutical businesses use them to create a range of products, including:
- Tablets come in various forms.
- Fill various capsule sizes
Dry Granulation in Chemical Industries
Dry granulation is crucial in the chemical industries, just like it is in the pharmaceutical ones. Making chemical tables or capsules is one of them. Other possibilities include making various agricultural goods or pills for water filtration. For instance, dry fertiliser granulation is typical in many sectors. The key is Chemical tablets or granules can be made more effectively using dry granulation, along with other items.
Dry Granulation in Processing Industries
The dry granulation method has benefitted the food processing industry. Consider the production of dietary supplements in the form of tablets or capsules.
These supplements typically come in the form of mineral ions or vitamins. Spice extracts, quick mixes, and other goods are possible. So what’s the final word on this? A variety of material processing requirements in industries can be met by the dry granulation process. All you need to do is pick a suitable material whose qualities won’t change as a result of the process.
As I mentioned earlier, dry granulation technique is appropriate for materials that are sensitive to moisture and temperature. But I understand that you may be asking how exactly you might accomplish this the main emphasis will be on dry granulation machines in chapters 8 and 9. It includes every essential element of dry granulation machines, including features, operation, specs, etc. Those chapters are essential reading if you wish to be an expert on dry granulation machines. So continue reading this page with me to discover more. Anyway, let’s get started now:
Chapter – 8: Slugging Machine for Dry Granulation
The main emphasis will be on dry granulation machines in chapters 8 and 9. It includes every essential element of dry granulation machines, including features, operation, specs, etc. Those chapters are essential reading if you wish to be an expert on dry granulation machines. So continue reading this page with me to discover more. Anyway, let’s get started now:
8.1 Slugging of Granules (What it is & Basic Facts)
The technique of creating granules from powder by applying intense pressure on the powder particles is known as slugging for dry granulation. You must put powder materials through a number of procedures to do this, which you will learn about in the following sections of this guide. Slugging in dry granulation often takes place at high pressures between 30 and 70 bar. High bonding pressure applied by the machine during the process causes powder particles to acquire binding forces between them.
A variety of forces, including Van der Waals, bond recombination, and surface interlocking, are involved in the formation of granules. You will get granules at the conclusion of the slugging in dry granulation process that you can further process to meet the demands of your market. In other words, you can fill capsules with them or compress them into tablets. In light of this, how precisely does slugging of granules occur?
8.2 Understanding Slugging Process in Dry Granulation
Before I go into detail about the crucial phases in this section, I want you to watch this video about slugging in dry granulation:
Step -1: Prepare Material You want to Granulate
When choosing a powder to granulate, be sure it is suitable. To blend it into a homogenous mixture, you can use a bin blender. It’s time to compress the powder into pills after creating the proper mixture.
Step – 2: Compress Powder into Slug or Tablets
Here, a compression or slugging machine is required. In fact, this apparatus is similar to the typical tablet compression machinery. However, the size of the tablets and the amount of pressure needed for the process are different from slugging in tablet manufacture. Keep in mind that the average tablet press uses roughly 4 tonnes of hydraulic pressure. When compared to a hydraulic press in slugging for dry granulation, this is quite low.
In some cases, you can need as much as 15 tonnes for materials that are challenging to compress. What is the goal of this? To form the powder into a thick tablet or slug with a gauge of approximately 0.25 inches and an inch in diameter. But this is not what you require.
Step – 3: Mill the Slug into Appropriate Granules Sizes
In essence, this is the disintegration of pills into extremely minute grains. Another crucial phase of slugging for dry granulation is this one. The right particle of granules will now be enlarged and separated using an appropriate milling machine. The milling machine may also create incredibly small particles during this phase (nearly the size of powder). They can be reused by being reinserted into the slugging machine.
As you can see, the procedure is really easy to follow. When using this dry granulation technique, you must pay attention to a few key elements in order to produce high-quality granules. Let’s examine ways to improve the slugging in dry granulation in more detail:
8.3 Factors Affecting the Efficiency of Slugging in Dry Granulation
The effectiveness of slugging in dry granulation is, in general, determined by two elements. These consist of:
- Characteristics for feeding materials
- Slugging machine characteristics
The truth is that a variety of raw material feeding characteristics affect the process’s granules production. These consist of:
- Features of flow
- Distribution of particle sizes
In addition to the power characteristics, you must assess the machine’s design elements. In this manner, it will be simple to make modifications to improve granule slugging. The following are some of the primary design elements of the slugging machine for dry granulation:
- Type of slugging machine
- feeding hopper
- Feed holder
- Size of the die
- tooling attribute
- compressive force
- Slugging force
The conclusion the quality of the finished product will depend on both the type of material and the design element. Again, the following safety measures must be taken to guarantee consistency (equal powder slugs and densified granules) during the manufacturing process:
- Always keep the die cavities filled with a consistent, homogeneous amount of powder.
- The likelihood of die powder flow and hopper feed frame issues will be reduced by a suitable design and configuration.
That’s not all, though. Here is one more crucial detail you need to be aware of:
8.4 Production Capacity of Slugging Machine in Dry Granulation
Slugging machines, like other pharmaceutical equipment, come in a variety of designs and configurations with varying product capacities. In actuality, the following crucial factors will affect production capacity:
- Type and layout of the device
- Turret rotation rates can range from 10 to 30 per minute.
The typical production output is between 30 and 50 kg per hour. The production capacity is pretty limited, as you can see. So why the slugging method isn’t used frequently in contemporary dry granulation processes?
- Slugging automation for dry granulation is a challenge. Controlling process quality is therefore quite challenging.
- Integrating a milling machine and a slugging machine is very challenging.
- You must manually re-feed them into the machine if the final output contains very fine powder.
In dry granulation, only few businesses employ slugging. In essence, it is an antiquated method of producing granules. Remember: The drawbacks of slugging for dry granulation were also mentioned before in this article. With all of this in mind, let’s take things a step further and talk about the roller compactor for dry granulation, a modern dry granulation equipment. In the process of dry granulation, this machine is essential. Please bear with me; there is still a lot you need to learn about improving dry granulation.
Chapter – 9: Roller Compactor Machine for Dry Granulation
This is a MUST read chapter if you’re having trouble optimising your dry granulation process. Reason: When it comes to dry granulation, roller compactor machines are dependable and effective. In reality, this device is utilised by almost all chemical, food processing, and pharmaceutical businesses.
Naturally, this is a result of its quick processing, cGMP compliance, automation-friendliness, and capacity to create high-quality granules. I’ll walk you through every important aspect of a roller compactor for dry granulation in this chapter. But first, let’s quickly review the development of the roller compactor.
9.1 History of Roller Compactor Machine for Dry Granulation
There have been several technological developments and improvements since Francis Xavier Chilson created the roller compactor for dry granulation. In fact, it is because of this that a roller compactor machine is occasionally referred to as a chilsonator.
Since then, a number of inventions and advancements have been made with the goal of improving performance and dependability. In-depth investigations and analyses are also included in these; links to those studies are provided at the end of this guide. Manufacturers of roller compactors have developed a variety of distinctive models in an effort to boost efficiency and dependability. For instance, they have an enhanced pressure roller mechanism, reduced shear mill, and auger-feed system.
In fact, it necessitates investigation of a number of final granule characteristics, including density, size, shape, flowability, etc. In fact, I can clearly affirm to you that technological developments in roller compactor machines will be essential to the future of dry granulation. All you have to do is as follows: For dry granulation, pick a high-quality, dependable roller compactor machine. But how do you go about doing that? I’ll walk you through that by talking about this:
9.2 What is Roller Compaction Technology for Dry Granulation ?
It’s crucial to become familiar with the machine you’ll be using even as you plan to experiment with the dry granulation procedure. In this manner, you may pick the equipment that will best serve all of your material processing requirements. The inquiry is that what is roller compaction technology?
A roller compaction technology, in layman’s terms, is a procedure that turns powder into granules. In other words, the machine will take powder as input and produce granules as output. The mechanics of this procedure are covered in section 9.4. (The roll compaction technology). Before we talk about the workings of the machine, I want you to be familiar with its various components.
To elaborate on my initial definition: The process of converting the powder into acceptable granules with predictable density, size, and shape is known as roller compaction technology for dry granulation. Rotating rollers, milling machinery, and equipment for material grading are all used in the roller compaction granulation process.
A single machine houses all of these operations. Therefore, roller compaction technology for dry granulation eliminates the need for material transportation between machines. You may be curious in the size and complexity of a roller compactor machine. Look at this to see how little the machine is:
Its dimensions are as follows:
- Length: 1400mm
- Width: 1150mm
- Height: 1950mm
- Weight: 1800kg
This is the gist of what I’m trying to say: This one piece of equipment has every component that aids in dry granulation in a roller compactor. Of course, a number of engineering principles also play a role. These are systems that use electrical, hydraulic, pneumatic, and mechanical components to turn powder into granules.
I hope this is the end of our time together. As I mentioned, the main step in the dry granulation process is roller compactor granulation. Because of this, I want you to comprehend each idea as we go. In light of this, let’s examine yet another crucial element you must understand IF you want to be an authority in roller compaction technology.
9.3 Parts of Roller Compactor Machine (Learn Part Name & Fun)
Do you recall this statement made by Steve Jobs? “Design is more than just how something appears and feels. It functions by design. I’ll walk you through several important components of roller compactor machines in this section. More significantly, though: You must pay close attention to how that specific component or functionality functions. In this method, dry granulation process optimization is simple.
- Why would you want to have rollers rotate in a certain direction?
- Which feeder system design is the best?
- How much space between the rollers should there be?
Essentially, the problem here goes beyond just developing different components of a roller compactor machine for dry granulation. You must determine the rationale behind the components’ and parts’ particular assembly. You now see why it is imperative that you read this chapter. I want you to first watch this video, which is:
You can see that the roller compactor machine has a lot of parts and components from this straightforward assembling method. But for the sake of this section, just the most important components will be highlighted. The essential components of a roll compactor machine for dry granulation are as follows:
Raw Material Feeding Unit
You will pour or place all of the powder material you plan to granulate here. It is often located on the topmost portion of the dry granulation machine. Here’s a prime illustration: typically, the layout of this part permits material to enter the feeding system. This is the rationale behind the majority of machines’ slanted sides. Typically, the layout of this part permits material to enter the feeding system. This is the rationale behind the majority of machines’ slanted sides.
Feeding System of Roller Compaction Machine
The feeding system is what moves the powder from the rollers to the raw material feeding unit (you will learn about the rollers shortly). The screw feeding system has been used by quite a few industrial equipment up to this point. Keep in mind that the roller compaction machine’s production capacity for dry granulation is determined by this feeding mechanism. In actuality, several feeding roller designs have been used by manufacturers of roller compaction machines. Notably, you will discover the machine with a distinct feeding screw orientation. Good instances are as follows:
The machine pre-compacts the powder at the material feeding system while simultaneously releasing any trapped air. Once more, the screw feeding system’s ability to remove air enables faster and greater powder feeding. Additionally, depending on the roller compactor machine’s design, you could choose either
- system of dual pre-compression feeds,
- system with a single pre-compression feed screw
When working with even low bulk density powders, you can rely on a roller compactor machine for dry granulation thanks to these distinctive designs. Simply put, pick a machine with a suitable feeding system.
Compacting Roller System
You may be asking why the roller compactor technique is used to describe this dry granulation process. Here is the solution. This device has two roller systems, as the name would imply. The roller system is where the compaction process happens. In other words, the rollers turn loose powder into flakes that eventually solidify into granules (you’ll discover more about this soon). In other words, the effectiveness of the dry granulation process in the roll compactor will largely depend on the system’s design. What fundamental characteristics does a compacting roller system for dry granulation process have?
Direction in which The Roller Rotate
These are typically two equal-diameter rollers that rotate in the same direction as the flow of powder from the hopper. The rollers must apply steady pressure at this stage to produce high-quality flakes. Additionally, there should be a constant distance between the two rotating rollers. A compacted ribbon or flakes are created by the pressure from the two counter-rotating rollers.
Gap Between the Two Rollers
The effectiveness of the dry granulation process will depend on the distance between the two rollers. This is an additional design element that you should take into account. The design of the area between the two rollers typically consists of three parts: The calibre of the finished item will be decided by this section. Thus, the two locations experience the following:
The slip region is also here. It is just a short distance from the feeding system, as seen in the photograph above. You should be aware of the following information about this section:
- At this stage, particle de-aeration and rearrangement occur.
- Less pressure is applied to the powder via rollers.
- Compaction zone or nip region
The area with the greatest compression is here. Material must move at the same speed as the two roller surfaces in order to accomplish this. The nip angle should also be suitably large for maximal compression in addition to these. Keep in mind that the nip region is where the distance between the two rollers narrows.
The space between the rollers, also known as the extrusion area, starts to form, lowering the overall pressure on the powder. The ribbon might consequently elastically grow in size. Essentially, at this stage of the dry granulation process, the material is ejected from the roller compactor system and moved to the following stage.
Designing roller compactor machines for dry granulation is typically a difficult procedure that involves selecting the best roller and design. But there is more to roller compactor granulation than this. There is also the following element to consider:
- Fixed vs. Variable Roller Gap
You should be able to use the screw feeding system to regulate the material flow when you have a fixed roller spacing. On the other hand, variable systems allow you to regulate the powder feed using the screw feeder and the distance between the rolls. The orientation is another feature that is present in the majority of roller designs. Again, there are three choices available here:
- Horizontal roller orientation;
One of the most popular models of roller compactor machines for dry granulation is this one. The rollers are set up horizontally in this instance. The powder loss as a result of bypass is substantial in these systems. A situation known as the bypass occurs when material stays in the nip region for a while. You require a side sealing device to lessen the likelihood of powder bypass. The machine in this instance will feature a vertical or slanted feeding system.
- Vertical Roller Orientation
Low dosage materials are appropriate for roller compactor machines with vertical roller orientations. It contains less bypass material, which explains why. Additionally, the movement of the powder is independent of the gravity feeding mechanism.
- Inclined Roller Orientation
The roller systems are oriented between the horizontal and vertical planes with these machine types. The benefit of these devices is that they decrease bypass by 10% to 15%. So what’s the final word on this? The machine’s dosing capacity and amount of material lost owing to bypass depend on the roller orientation.
The surface area must also be taken into account while designing rollers in addition to these important features. The surface area, however, will depend on the roller compactor machine’s design for dry granulation. Additionally, you can have a roller surface that is both smooth and corrugated.
You can use: depending on the application’s requirements.
- The pharmaceutical industry’s roller compactor machines are ideal candidates for this smooth roll surface.
- When dry granulating aerated and fluffy materials with the intention of increasing their bulk density, corrugated roller surfaces are ideal.
Additionally, you ought to be able to manage the pressure that causes compaction. Once the flakes or ribbons have been created, it is time to turn them into the proper grains. We now come to yet another crucial component of the dry granulation machine.
The flake crusher, which is situated immediately below the two rollers, breaks down the ribbons or flakes into smaller pieces. As per the cGMP criteria, it’s crucial that the flake crusher has a dust-free design. This is sometimes referred to as a pre-crushing device. The flakes or ribbons are ground into the appropriate granular sizes by this component. The roller compaction machine is equipped with an adequate size screen to guarantee that only granules of the same size exit the machine for dry granulation. The milling procedure often accomplishes the following:
- Increase the granules’ flowability
- Ensure consistency of content
- Lessen the segregation
- ensure the dispersion of particle sizes
Once more, the mill you choose will influence the amount of pressure you wish to use when removing flakes or ribbons from the roller system. For illustration:
- A cut mill is necessary for shear force.
- You require a jaw crusher and a conical screen mill for compression force.
- To reduce attrition, use a ball mill.
- You require impact force. Mill, hammer, and screen
In other words, it depends on the outcome you hope to attain at the end of the procedure.
A fully automatic machine is a roller compactor for dry granulation. Consequently, a lot of machines use a touchscreen PLC control system for the human-machine interaction (HMI). You may check, adjust, and customise different roller compaction process parameters via the HMI.
A roller compactor machine for dry granulation contains the following essential parts and components in addition to these:
- discharge port or chute for the finished item
- Electric motors, shafts, gears, and belts make up the drive mechanism.
- the entire framework that supports the machine and all of its parts
- alarm mechanisms
Recall that I said before that a dry granulation roller compactor machine includes hundreds of parts and components. Some of those I haven’t covered in this article. To learn what new features the roller compactor manufacturer has added to their product, kindly consult the machine’s technical documentation.
Even with these differences, the design elements presented here serve as the roller compactor machine’s fundamental structure and operating principle. Let’s now examine how a roller compactor for dry granulation functions in light of these factors.
9.4 Principle of Dry Granulation with Roller Compaction Technology
You will discover how a roller compactor for dry granulation functions in this section. It will guide you through a step-by-step process and, when possible, provide illustrations in addition to photographs. If you were interested, I have highlighted important features of roller compaction technology in section 9.3 of this chapter.
In fact, you may understand the fundamentals of roller compaction and dry granulation technology just from that part. However, before I talk about these procedures, you should view this video. It provides a clear and concise explanation of the operation of a roller compactor. Let me now describe how a pharmaceutical roller compactor operates (it works the same way for industrial roller compactors too):
Step – 1: Fill Powder into the Hopper or Material Feeding Equipment
When you have the right powder mixture, add it to the hopper or material feeding mechanism. The powder will move to the roller system from this point. I’m hoping you may recall the details of the material hopper or the material feeding machinery. Please refer to this chapter’s section 9.3 if you don’t remember.
Step – 2: Material Flows to the Roller System
The machine’s design alone will determine how the roller system is oriented. Once more, the design of the machine will affect the feeding mechanism. Nowadays, a screw material feeding method is used by quite a few machines. Systems for feeding screws vertically and horizontally may be included.
The powder moves in the direction of the roller compaction systems as the screw feeding systems rotate. It also gets rid of any air that might be in the powder at the same time. Additionally, it recompresses powder.
Step – 3: Roller Compress Powder into Flake or Ribbon
The two rollers compress the powder into the proper flakes or ribbons as they move in the opposite direction of the material’s flow. The material you are dry granulating will pass through all three regions, as I had mentioned in section 9.3. It will be a completely crushed flake or ribbon by the time it reaches the lower edge of the rollers.
Step – 4: Mill Ribbon or Flakes
In the case of roller compaction, the machine is equipped with the proper milling machinery. This milling device is what shrinks the flakes into the proper granule sizes. You may be asking how this machine can generate the precise size grains you require with such accuracy. I’ll explain: There are three options as the milling apparatus rotates, breaking ribbon or flakes into smaller particles:
- Particles that are larger than what you require in terms of size
- Typical granule size required
- Very little particles, the same size as the powder, are present.
This is how the producers of roller compactor machines guarantee constant high efficiency.
- They will stay in the milling chamber if the particles are quite big. In this manner, they will be further reduced into smaller sizes while the milling machine rotates, probably the ones you require.
- The proper granule sizes will go to the following sieve system section, where they will then proceed to the product collection unit.
- The lowest component of the sieve system will receive the very small particles. They will then be recycled back into the machine’s feeding system to undergo another compression.
All of these procedures have been automated, I suppose. Thus, all that is required is that you input the proper roller compaction process settings. As you can see, the roller compactor for dry granulation operates on a very basic and easy concept. Here is a list of all the steps:
I want you to take note of the following before I move on to the next chapter section. The major dry granulation characteristics you must assess to improve the overall process are machine design and powder qualities. Keep in mind that changing any of these factors can enhance or hinder the dry granulation of appropriate grains. You still need to know how to obtain a proper roll compactor machine for dry granulation, though.
9.5 How to Buy Roller Compactor for Dry Granulation
I won’t walk you through simple tasks like finding or looking for a reliable manufacturer. It is well known that a roller compactor for dry granulation MUST be purchased from a reliable manufacturer. What specifically do you need to know before purchasing a roller compactor machine?
1. Consider Technical Specifications of the Roller Compactor Machine
These details provide a comprehensive description of the roller compactor machine’s capabilities. You can determine from this information if a machine satisfies your particular process needs or not. A technical specification is specific to a machine model, so keep that in mind. Contrary to the operation handbook, which a roller compactor manufacturer may opt to include for a certain series of equipment, this document is universal. Every detail and operating parameter of the roller compactor machine model are included in this material. Here’s a prime illustration:
You can design the machine based on this information to suit your specific roller compactor for dry granulation requirements. In conclusion, before you purchase a roller compactor machine, make sure to consider the machine’s technical parameters.
2. Features of Roller Compactor for Dry Granulation
These are the fundamental elements that support the machine’s ability to perform the granulation process. I am aware that you might equate this with the machine’s technical characteristics. So let’s simplify things for you to understand: Consider the Adinath International Roll Compactor machine, which can granulate about 100 kg per hour. The technical description is that. In order to determine precisely what causes the system to achieve such a level of performance, you must dig beyond these metrics. You will discover just that here. The roller compactor for dry granulation has the following main characteristics:
For dry granulation, quite a few roller compactor machines have fully automatic systems. Specifically, air removal from the material feeding system, air compression, milling, and pre-compression. All of these procedures call for a strong and dependable control system.
Because of this, the maker of roller compactors incorporates a touchscreen user interface (HMI). Operators of roller compactor machines can use this to configure, monitor, and, if necessary, troubleshoot the machine’s various processes. The sieving system, feeding pressure, force moment, speed, formula sheet thickness, etc. can all be precisely controlled via the HMI, depending on the machine’s control system’s capabilities. You can even print the process data using some machines.
cGMP Compliance is a Must Features
As you will be working with dry powder, there is a significant risk of cross-contamination or air pollution. Therefore, when looking for a roller compactor machine, only settle for those that are cGMP certified for dry granulation. The first need is that every component of the machine, including the hopper, material feeding screw system, roller compaction, and milling, operate without creating any dust. Second, the FDA-approved material should be used in the roller compaction machine for dry granulation. These devices are built of stainless steel because of this.
The third need is total isolation of any and all moving components, including motors, gears, and other transmission mechanisms. This will guarantee that these moving parts never accumulate dust. Four, choose a machine that is simple to maintain and clean. A modern machine might have an automated cleaning system, for instance.
The self-configured negative air pressure air pump system used in the instance of the Adinath International Roll Compactor is an excellent example. The entire operating chamber is pre-cleaned. By sucking up any particles inside the machine system, the device will hence avoid any potential cross contamination.
Unique Feeding System
Let’s face it: the effectiveness of the feeding system determines the efficiency and dependability of a roller compaction dry granulation process. What if you had a device that could regulate the material flow for granulation? Although there are other designs, I believe that the helical feeding mode is the best option for a successful dry granulation procedure. The helical feeding system combines the benefits of flat feeding and vertical feeding systems, which is a good thing.
Precise Control of Rollers
The truth is that even if you choose the “greatest” equipment available, your efforts would be in vain without the right roller mechanism. Why don’t you take into account a device that has an eccentric roller that is precisely controlled by pneumatic means? You can keep the consistency in granules with such a machine. You will therefore have a ribbon with a consistent thickness.
Recycling very Fine Powder
There are a few things that are quite obvious from the roller compaction machine’s operating concept for dry granulation. You may obtain: extremely huge grains that the mill is nonetheless able to crush into little pieces suitable granules that will thereafter migrate mechanically into the product collection chamber very fine powder that could need to be processed further
To separate fine powder from the finished product, you should now have a machine with a suitable sieving mechanism. It should also have a way for recycling this fine powder so that it can be compressed once again.
It is that easy. Pick a roller compactor for dry granulation that has a machine that can boost productivity. Don’t misunderstand me, though: I don’t mean to suggest that these are the sole qualities to consider. Depending on their research and what they think will increase the effectiveness of the dry granulation process, roller compactor manufacturers may choose from a variety of characteristics.
3. Design & Structure of the Roll Compaction Machine for Dry Granulation
For dry granulation, you must take into account the structure and design of a roller compaction machine. You can determine whether the machine is appropriate for your particular manufacturing requirements from this. This is the general layout that you may see when I discuss a roller compaction machine’s structure. Consider these:
Exactly what I mean by a roller compactor machine for dry granulation design is what you can see in the image above. So, based solely on this design, we can say whether or not the machine is appropriate for dry granulation. For instance, the RC-5B is portable and appropriate for batch production or research and development. The RC-150, on the other hand, is appropriate for medium volume production. Other features of the design of a roller compactor for dry granulation include:
- Simple part switchover
- The machine’s adaptability to any dry granulation production process and flexibility
- modular structure
Let’s be honest: I understand that if a machine’s performance were to somewhat increase, you wouldn’t want to buy a brand-new one. In addition, nobody wants to encounter the bothersome machine downtimes. It goes without saying that you require a roller compactor for dry granulation that can ensure:
- best powder dosage
- Conveniently eliminate air without vacuuming
- Make sure the dry granulation process is uniform.
Well, a top-notch roller compactor for dry granulation can help you accomplish all of these goals. In other words, the machine’s construction and design should satisfy your particular dry granulation requirements. What’s the final word in this situation? You must take into account technical specs, machine features, and design/structure whenever you’re thinking about purchasing a new roller compactor for dry granulation.
You can never go wrong if you consider these three factors. In fact, they will help you locate a dependable dry granulation roller compactor manufacturer. It would be unfair not to suggest a couple roller compaction machines as I am about to wrap up this dry granulation guide. I’ll give you a brief rundown of Adinath roller compactor machines:
9.6 Adinath Roller Compactor Machines
Adinath is a renowned maker of roller compactor machines that makes investments in cutting-edge machinery. The company offers countless options in pharmaceutical dry granulation procedures by combining their own unique technology with American and European technologies. An overview of a few of Adinath’s roller compactor machines for dry granulation is below: